“Everybody is a genius. but if you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree, it will live its whole life believing that it is stupid” – – Albert Einstein

All the notes were taken directly from the source mentioned! 

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Outlier: Phenomena that lie outside normal experience

Matthew Effect “Those who are successful are more likely to be given the kind of special opportunities that lead to further success. They win because of accumulative advantage” sociologist Robert Merton, from a testament verse.

We cling to the idea that success is a simple reduction of individual merit and that the world in which we all grow up and the rules we choose to write as a society don’t matter at all.

“Before he could become an expert, someone had to give him the opportunity to learn how to be an expert”

Outliers are products of history and community, opportunity and legacy.


In the list of the richest people in history, 14/75 are American’s born in the 1860’s and 1870’s. This was when the industrial revolution was taking off, and the railways were being built across America and Wall Street started up.

The same happened in Silicon Valley.  All the top IT entrepreneurs were born between 1953 and 1956.


1935, there were 600,000 fewer babies born than the average, which meant smaller class sizes and a greater chance to get a spot on the top sports teams or colleges.

Athletes born in certain months (after a particular age cut-off date) are older and bigger

Cultural legacy 

Asian countries where rice was a dominant crop.

Plane crushes of pilots who come from countries of hierarchy

Additional References:

Michael Howe – Genius Explained

Roseto Valfortore, Provience of Foggia Italy


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